Although this remains a predominantly national competence, European Parliament must continue to call for more European cooperation against undesirable foreign state or non-state interference with research. For example, in resolutions on foreign interference, European Member States called on the Member States to improve transparency of foreign funding as well as mapping and monitoring of foreign interference in the cultural, academic and religious spheres. This includes ensuring robust data protection, safeguarding intellectual property rights, and preventing the misuse of research findings. Parliament must continue to call for support to the Member States on Union level, such as the European Centre of Expertise on Research Security proposed by the European Commission.